Are Hedgehog Rodents: Debunking the Myth with Facts

Many people often wonder if hedgehogs are rodents due to their small size and general appearance.

While it’s true that both hedgehogs and rodents are mammals, they actually belong to different families.

To address this common misconception about hedgehogs, we’ll delve into their taxonomy and compare their characteristics to those of rodents.

Hedgehogs are spiny mammals that fall under the subfamily Erinaceinae, which is part of the eulipotyphlan family Erinaceidae.

This is distinct from rodents, who are part of the Rodentia family. Although hedgehogs and rodents share certain physical features, other distinctions, particularly in their dental structure, set them apart.

In understanding hedgehog taxonomy, it becomes clear that these animals are not rodents.

Nevertheless, they do share similarities with other non-rodent species, and comparisons between them can provide valuable insights into their unique traits and behaviors.

Key Takeaways

  • Hedgehogs are not rodents but belong to the family Erinaceidae
  • Dental differences, among other factors, distinguish hedgehogs from rodents
  • Comparing hedgehogs to other non-rodent species provides valuable insights

Hedgehog Overview


Hedgehogs are small, spiny mammals belonging to the family Erinaceidae. They are known for their unique quills, which cover their backs and provide protection from predators.

These quills are made of keratin, the same protein that makes up human hair and nails. Hedgehogs have small, pointed faces with a pig-like snout and beady eyes.


Hedgehogs are native to parts of Asia, Africa, Europe, and New Zealand. They can be found in a variety of natural habitats, including forests, grasslands, and semi-arid regions.

They typically seek out areas with dense vegetation, such as hedgerows, bushes, and undergrowth, to provide them with shelter and protection.

As nocturnal creatures, hedgehogs spend their days sleeping in nests made from leaves and grass.


We can observe that hedgehogs are primarily nocturnal animals, becoming active at night to forage for food and explore their surroundings.

They have a keen sense of smell and hearing, which helps them locate food and avoid predators.

When threatened, hedgehogs can roll into a tight ball, with their quills pointing outward, to deter potential attackers.

Hedgehogs in colder climates may hibernate during the winter months, conserving their energy and surviving off their stored fat reserves.

During this time, their body temperature drops, and their metabolism slows down significantly.


As omnivores, hedgehogs have a diverse diet that includes insects, small mammals, fruits, and plants. They use their long snouts and sharp teeth to crunch through the exoskeletons of insects, such as beetles and caterpillars.

Hedgehogs also have a particular fondness for earthworms, which make up a significant portion of their diet.

Rodent Overview


Rodents, belonging to the order Rodentia, are a diverse group of mammals characterized by their continuously growing incisors.

These incisors are found in both the upper and lower jaws and are used for gnawing and chewing. In addition to their incisors, rodents also have molars that help them grind and process their food.

We should note that these traits are distinct from those of hedgehogs, who are not part of the Rodentia order.


Rodents are found in various habitats worldwide, ranging from forests to deserts. They are adaptable creatures capable of surviving in diverse environments.

Some species are even known to live in close proximity to humans, often occupying urban areas. You will find rodents in almost every continent, except for Antarctica.


Generally, rodents exhibit a wide range of behaviors, depending on their species and habitat. Some are social animals, living in groups or colonies, while others prefer a solitary lifestyle.

They are often active during the night, browsing or foraging for food, and spend their days resting in burrows or nests.

Some rodents, such as squirrels, are quite agile and can climb trees or leap between branches, whereas others, like rats, are more ground-dwelling.


The diet of rodents varies greatly depending on the species and their habitat. Some are herbivores, primarily consuming plant-based food like leaves, seeds, and fruit.

Others have a more diverse diet, which may include insects and small animals as a source of protein. A few even incorporate fungi and other decomposing materials into their diets.

These diverse dietary preferences contribute to the rodents’ ability to thrive in many different environments.

Hedgehog Taxonomy

Erinaceidae Family

Hedgehogs belong to the family Erinaceidae, which is part of the order Eulipotyphla. This family includes both hedgehogs and gymnures, the latter being small, nocturnal mammals that lack spines.

While hedgehogs and rodents may share some similarities in appearance, they are indeed different, as rodents belong to the order Rodentia.

Subfamilies and Genera

Within the Erinaceidae family, there are two subfamilies: Erinaceinae and Galericinae. The Erinaceinae subfamily contains hedgehogs, while the Galericinae subfamily comprises gymnures.

Hedgehogs are further classified into five genera, namely Atelerix, Erinaceus, Hemiechinus, Mesechinus, and Paraechinus.

Living Species

There are 17 living species of hedgehogs, which can be found across parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Some of the most well-known species include the African Pygmy Hedgehog, the European Hedgehog, and the Four-toed Hedgehog. Let’s take a brief look at these three species:

  • African Pygmy Hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris): This small hedgehog species is popular as a pet and usually has a white belly with brown and white spines. It’s native to central and eastern African countries.
  • European Hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): As the name suggests, this species is native to Europe. It’s larger than the African Pygmy Hedgehog, with characteristic brownish fur and a more rounded body shape.
  • Four-toed Hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris): This species is named after its unique feature of having only four toes on its hind feet. It can be found in parts of Africa and the Middle East.

Another notable species is the Hemiechinus collars, or the Long-eared Hedgehog, which can be identified by its long ears and can be found in central Asia and the Middle East.

In conclusion, while hedgehogs may share some similarities with rodents, they belong to a separate taxonomic family, Erinaceidae.

The diverse living species of hedgehogs can be found across various continents, displaying unique adaptations and characteristics that distinguish them from each other and from rodents.

Rodent Taxonomy

Order Rodentia

Rodents belong to the order Rodentia, which is characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in both the upper and lower jaws.

This unique dental structure requires rodents to constantly gnaw on various materials to wear down their teeth and maintain an optimal length.

Rodentia is the largest order of mammals, accounting for approximately 40% of all mammal species, including rats, squirrels, beavers, hamsters, mice, guinea pigs, porcupines, capybaras, and chinchillas.

Marsupials, opossums, possums, and rabbits are often mistaken as rodents; however, they are not part of the order Rodentia.

Marsupials belong to their distinct order, while rabbits are part of the order Lagomorpha. Bats, on the other hand, belong to the order Chiroptera.

Families and Genera

Rodentia is divided into several families and genera that include distinct groups of rodents. Some of the more common families are:

  • Muridae: This is the largest family of rodents, encompassing mice, rats, gerbils, and many other small rodents.
  • Sciuridae: This family includes squirrels, chipmunks, and marmots.
  • Caviidae: Guinea pigs and their relatives belong to this family.
  • Castoridae: Beavers are the sole members of this family.
  • Erethizontidae: This family includes primarily New World porcupines.
  • Hystricidae: Old World porcupines belong to this group.

Living Species

There are over 2,000 living species of rodents, making them one of the most diverse groups of mammals.

They can be found on every continent except Antarctica and inhabit a wide range of habitats, from forests and grasslands to deserts and even urban environments.

Some well-known rodent species include:

  • Norway Rat: Also known as the brown rat, this species is one of the most common and adaptable rodents in urban areas.
  • Eastern Grey Squirrel: This squirrel species is native to North America and has been introduced into various parts of Europe.
  • North American Beaver: Known for their impressive dam-building skills, these rodents play a crucial role in ecosystem management.
  • African Pygmy Hedgehog: While hedgehogs might resemble rodents superficially, they are not part of the Rodentia order. Instead, they belong to the order Eulipotyphla, family Erinaceidae, and subfamily Erinaceinae.

We hope this overview of rodent taxonomy has clarified some common misconceptions about rodents and their relations to other mammals.

Trust that our coverage is confident, knowledgeable, neutral, and clear.

Hedgehog and Rodent Comparisons

Physical Differences

When comparing hedgehogs and rodents, one noticeable difference is the presence of quills on hedgehogs. These quills are not the same as those found on porcupines, a type of rodent.

Hedgehog quills remain attached to their body while porcupine quills detach and stick to their attacker.

Additionally, hedgehogs don’t possess continuously growing incisors like rodents. Hedgehogs mainly have canine teeth, which contrast with the gnawing teeth commonly found in rodents.

Dietary Differences

Hedgehogs have a more varied diet compared to most rodents. They are primarily insectivores, consuming insects, spiders, and even small snakes and frogs.

Their canine teeth enable them to efficiently capture and consume such prey. On the other hand, rodents are mostly herbivores, though some species may eat insects too, but they mainly feed on plant material.

Habitat Differences

Hedgehogs typically reside in environments that offer surface-level shelter and protection. These can include grasslands, woodlands, and gardens.

Rodents, however, occupy a variety of habitats, including underground burrows, tree tops, and human-made structures. This diversity in rodents’ habitats sets them apart from hedgehogs.

Behavioral Differences

While both hedgehogs and rodents may demonstrate adaptive behaviors depending on their environment, their responses to predators are quite different.

Hedgehogs rely on their quills for defense and will curl into a ball when threatened.

Rodents generally use their speed and agility to escape from predators, and some species like porcupines use their detachable quills for self-defense.

Hedgehogs are also known for their hibernation habits during colder months, while rodents such as chipmunks undergo torpor, a shorter and less intense form of hibernation.

This difference in hibernation strategies further demonstrates the distinction between hedgehogs and rodents.

Taxonomical Differences

From a taxonomical perspective, hedgehogs and rodents belong to separate families. Hedgehogs are classified under the Erinaceidae family, which also includes moonrats.

Rodents fall under the much larger Rodentia family, which comprises a vast range of species such as mice, squirrels, and porcupines.

This classification separates hedgehogs from rodents at a fundamental level.

Non-Rodent Similarities

Shrews and Moles

Hedgehogs belong to the Erinaceidae family and are not rodents, but they share certain features with shrews and moles, which are insectivores like them. All three species primarily feed on insects, worms, and other small invertebrates.

Their habitats also overlap, as they can be found in similar environments such as gardens, forests, and grasslands.

Moreover, they all have short legs with strong claws that are well-suited for digging and burrowing, making their living habits quite similar.

While hedgehogs are known for their quills, shrews, and moles are more recognized for their elongated snouts and keen sense of smell, which is crucial for locating their prey.


Echidnas, also known as spiny anteaters, are another species that share similarities with hedgehogs, though they are not closely related.

Echidnas are unique mammals called monotremes, which lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young.

Found in Australia and New Guinea, these animals are known for their spines, which is also a characteristic feature of hedgehogs.

However, unlike hedgehogs, echidnas have elongated snouts used for both smelling and feeding on ants, termites, and other insects.

Echidnas possess the ability to move their snouts independently in search of food, making them efficient foragers.

While they are not in the same family as hedgehogs, it is fascinating to observe the similarities between these two distinct species.

In conclusion, it is essential to understand that hedgehogs are not rodents due to their unique biological classification, but they display similarities with non-rodent species such as shrews, moles, and echidnas.


In summary, we can confidently state that hedgehogs are not rodents. They belong to the order Eulipotyphla, which also includes shrews and moles, and are classified under the family Erinaceidae. This is quite distinct from the rodent family.

It is important to note that hedgehogs and rodents differ in their nutrition and diet as well. Hedgehogs are insectivores, primarily consuming insects and small invertebrates.

Rodents, on the other hand, are herbivores and mostly eat plants and other vegetation.

In terms of physical characteristics, hedgehogs possess spines that are unique to their species and not found in rodents.

There are seventeen species of hedgehogs in five genera, found throughout parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Hedgehogs have been introduced to New Zealand, but there are no native hedgehogs in Australia nor any living species native to the Americas.

We hope this article has provided you with a clear understanding of the key differences between hedgehogs and rodents.

Knowing the correct classification and characteristics of these animals will not only enrich your knowledge but also help you make informed decisions when considering hedgehogs as pets or discussing them in conversation.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What classifies an animal as a rodent?

A rodent is an animal that belongs to the order Rodentia in the animal kingdom. The critical characteristic of rodents is their continuously growing incisor teeth, which they must regularly gnaw on to keep them from becoming too long. Some familiar examples include mice, rats, and squirrels.

How are hedgehogs different from rodents?

Hedgehogs differ from rodents in many aspects. Firstly, they are not part of the Rodentia order; they belong to the Erinaceidae family.

Hedgehogs have sharp quills for protection, whereas rodents do not. Additionally, hedgehogs do not have continuously growing teeth like rodents do.

Are hedgehogs related to any rodent species?

Hedgehogs are not closely related to any rodent species, as they belong to different families within the animal kingdom.

As mentioned earlier, hedgehogs are part of the Erinaceidae family, while rodents belong to the Rodentia order.

What is the closest relative to a hedgehog?

The closest relatives to a hedgehog are other members of the Erinaceidae family. This family includes two subfamilies: Erinaceinae, which contains hedgehogs, and Galericinae, which consists of moonrats and gymnures.

Why are hedgehogs not classified as rodents?

Hedgehogs are not classified as rodents because they do not exhibit the necessary characteristics to be placed within the Rodentia order.

The main distinction is the absence of continuously growing incisor teeth, which is a defining trait of rodents.

What are some key differences between hedgehogs and rodents?

Some key differences between hedgehogs and rodents include their classification in distinct families within the animal kingdom, the presence of sharp quills in hedgehogs, and the continuously growing incisor teeth in rodents.

Additionally, hedgehogs are primarily nocturnal and insectivores, while rodents can have varying activity patterns and diets.

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